Global population is now 7.96 billion.
But almost two millennia in the past, when the total world population was (roughly) 200 million people, concerns about overpopulation were already being expressed.
I am deeply ignorant concerning the early centuries of the Catholic Church, but I have even heard of Tertullian, for his formulation of Trinitarian doctrine and his nickname as ”The Father of Latin Christianity.” Here’s a comment from his A Treatise on the Soul, in a chapter where part of the heading reads, ”The State of Contemporary Civilization” (from the 1868 translation by Peter Holmes):
Surely it is obvious enough, if one looks at the whole world, that it is becoming daily better cultivated and more fully populated than anciently. All places are now accessible, all are well known, all open to commerce; most pleasant farms have obliterated all traces of what were once dreary and dangerous wastes; cultivated fields have subdued forests; flocks and herds have expelled wild beasts; sandy deserts are sown; rocks are planted; marshes are drained; and where once were hardly solitary cottages, there are now large cities. No longer are (savage) islands dreaded, nor their rocky shores feared; everywhere are houses, and inhabitants, and settled government, and civilized life. What most frequently meets our view (and occasions complaint), is our teeming population: our numbers are burdensome to the world, which can hardly supply us from its natural elements; our wants grow more and more keen, and our complaints more bitter in all mouths, whilst Nature fails in affording us her usual sustenance. In very deed, pestilence, and famine, and wars, and earthquakes have to be regarded as a remedy for nations, as the means of pruning the luxuriance of the human race …
But these examples of the ongoing fear of overpopulation, and many more examples that can be given through history, do suggest that worries about overpopulation–together with an inability to imagine how the population might be fed–may represent an internal bias that is baked deeply into the human psyche. Sometimes biases turn out to be right, eventually–after all, even a stopped clock shows the correct time twice each day–but it’s still worth being aware of their existence.
Timothy Taylor is an American economist. He is managing editor of the Journal of Economic Perspectives, a quarterly academic journal produced at Macalester College and published by the American Economic Association. Taylor received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Haverford College and a master's degree in economics from Stanford University. At Stanford, he was winner of the award for excellent teaching in a large class (more than 30 students) given by the Associated Students of Stanford University. At Minnesota, he was named a Distinguished Lecturer by the Department of Economics and voted Teacher of the Year by the master's degree students at the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs. Taylor has been a guest speaker for groups of teachers of high school economics, visiting diplomats from eastern Europe, talk-radio shows, and community groups. From 1989 to 1997, Professor Taylor wrote an economics opinion column for the San Jose Mercury-News. He has published multiple lectures on economics through The Teaching Company. With Rudolph Penner and Isabel Sawhill, he is co-author of Updating America's Social Contract (2000), whose first chapter provided an early radical centrist perspective, "An Agenda for the Radical Middle". Taylor is also the author of The Instant Economist: Everything You Need to Know About How the Economy Works, published by the Penguin Group in 2012. The fourth edition of Taylor's Principles of Economics textbook was published by Textbook Media in 2017.